# Fermat’s Last Theorem Proved in Hilbert Arithmetic. III. the Quantum-Information Unification of Fermat’s Last Theorem and Gleason's Theorem

### EasyChair Preprint 8280

30 pages•Date: June 18, 2022### Abstract

The previous two parts of the paper (correspondingly, https://philpapers.org/rec/PENFLT-2 and https://philpapers.org/rec/PENFLT-3) are continued. An interpretation can serve for a proof FLT based on Gleason’s theorem and partly similar to that in *Part II*. The concept of (probabilistic) measure of a subspace of Hilbert space and especially its uniqueness can be unambiguously linked to that of partial algebra or incommensurability, or interpreted as a relation of the two dual branches of Hilbert arithmetic in a wide sense. The investigation of the last relation allows for FLT and Gleason’s theorem to be equated in a sense, as two dual counterparts, and the former to be inferred from the latter, as well as vice versa under an additional condition relevant to the Gödel incompleteness of arithmetic to set theory. The qubit Hilbert space itself in turn can be interpreted by the unity of FLT and Gleason’s theorem. The proof of such a fundamental result in number theory as FLT by means of Hilbert arithmetic in a wide sense can be generalized to an idea about “quantum number theory”. It is able to research mathematically the origin of Peano arithmetic from Hilbert arithmetic by mediation of the “nonstandard bijection” and its two dual branches inherently linking it to information theory. Then, infinitesimal analysis and its revolutionary application to physics can be also re-realized in that wider context, for example, as an exploration of the way for physical quantity of time (respectively, for time derivative in any temporal process considered in physics) to appear at all. Finally, the result admits a philosophical reflection of how any hierarchy arises or changes itself only thanks to its dual and idempotent counterpart.

**Keyphrases**: Fermat’s Last Theorem, Gleason’s theorem, Hilbert arithmetic, Kochen and Specker theorem, Peano arithmetic, completeness, idempotency and hierarchy, nonstandard bijection, quantum information